Proteinuria. Glomerular permeability is affected by molecular weight, size, shape and electrical charge of molecules. It is also influenced by renal hemodynamics.


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Nephrotoxic Injury Definition. Nephrotoxic injury is damage to one or both of the kidneys that results from exposure to a toxic material, usually through ingestion.

In the kidney, the renal papilla is the location where the medullary pyramids empty urine into the minor calyx. Histologically it is marked by medullary collecting ducts .

The complex nature of critical illness often necessitates the use of multiple therapeutic agents, ma

Counterregulatory Responses to Decrease in Effective Circulating Blood Volume . Increased Sympathetic Tone . Increase in renin-angiotensin system characterized by a increase in .

Nephrotoxicity (from Greek: nephros, "kidney") is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic chemicals and medication, on the kidneys. There are various forms of .

Kidney Toxicity References There is no generally accepted source for an authoritative


list of chemicals that are recognized to cause kidney toxicity.


Vancomycin - Target trough levels?? Rybak M, Lomaestro B, Rotschafer JC, et al. (2009). "Therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin in adult patients: A consensus review of .

A hazardous chemical is defined by OSHA as any chemical that is a health hazard or a physical hazard.

Measuring serum creatinine is a useful and inexpensive method of evaluating renal dysfunction. Creatinine is a non-protein waste product of creatine phosphate metabolism by .

1. Crit Care Med. 2008 Apr;36(4 Suppl):S166-71. Can we prevent acute kidney injury? Venkataraman R. Critical Care Consultants Group, Critical nephrotoxins Care Medicine, Apollo Hospitals .

Definition of
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